Islam A-Z (I)

Asma ul Husna - The 99 Names of Allah


Ibaadat | Ideologies | Ihraam | Ijmaa | Ijtihaad | Ilm | Illness | Imaan | Imitation | Inheritance | Innovation | Integration | Intentions | Intercourse | Interest | Intoxicants | (Prophet) Isa | Islam | Istikharah | Istilaam | Istinja |



Ibaadat means act of worship

Also referred to as: Ibadat, Ibadaat (plural), Worship



Also referred to as: Beliefs, Ideas, Concepts, Ideals, Principles, Doctrine, Creed, Credo, Teaching, Dogma, Theory, Thesis, Tenets, Canon(s); Conviction(s), Persuasion, Opinions, Position, Ethics, Morals, Cultures, Civilisations



Ihraam is a state in which the person performing Umrah or Hajj dons particular clothes/non-stitched sheets and abstains from certain actions and makes the intention (Niyyah) and prayer (Talbiyyah) for Umrah or Hajj.

Also referred to as: Ihram



Ijmaa is the unanimous opinion of all the respected and rightly guided scholars on any Islamic issue.

Also referred to as: Ijma', Ijmaa



The definition of 'Ijtihaad' as understood from the opinions of Ulama is as follows: “Expending one′s utmost effort in deriving secondary opinions from the four fundamental sources of Islamic law, namely Qur′aan, Sunnah, Ijma′ (The unanimous opinion of all the respected and rightly guided scholars on any Islamic issue), Qiyaas (Analogy)" To be a 'Mujtahid' (a highly skilled scholar who is qualified to deduce legal rulings from the sources) certain criteria have to be satisfied.



Ilm means 'Knowledge'

Also referred to as: 'Ilm



Allah has created Man and all creation, he sustains Man and controls the environment. However every soul is temporarily tested in this world and sometimes through our brief illness contemplation of Allah increases and family bonds and community wellbeing is also tested. Allah has through the revelation of the Quran and His Messenger May Allah send peace and blessings upon him taught us how to help ourselves and each other and that He has provided us with cures for all illnesses except death; reminding us that Allah The Creator gives life, health and illness and is also the only One who removes them and at a predetermined time permanently moves us to the Hereafter. Until that time we must look after ourselves and others spritually and physically and use the cures at our disposal.



The set of beliefs that constitute the principle tenets of Islam. Belief in: Allah, His Intentions, His Revelations, His Messengers (Prophets May Allah send peace and blessings upon them all), The Day of Judgement and that Fate both good and bad, is given by Allah and that there is Life after Death (Hereafter).

People who were classified as followers of the Prophets May Allah send peace and blessings upon them all of their era had the same Faith described above and are known as the believers in that era and the Ummah of the particular Prophet. The Prophet of this last and final prophetic era is Prophet Muhammad May Allah send peace and blessings upon him and his followers (Muslims) are the final set of believers and are titled the Ummah of Prophet Muhammad May Allah send peace and blessings upon him, the Last and Final Messenger. To be a Muslim you must believe in the principle tenets of Islam (above) including the belief that there is no Deity other than Allah and Prophet Muhammad May Allah send peace and blessings upon him is His Messenger.

Also referred to as: Faith, Iman, Creed, Doctrine, Faith, Belief, Practice, Tenets, Principles, Articles, Islam.



Imitation can be explained as appearing to be like another in similar form, peculiar attributes, practices or habits.

"Whoever imitates a group then he is from amongst them"

Whoever imitates a group (be they disbelievers or transgressors or even pious people), in acts of good or bad they will be regarded from amongst them according to the sin or reward. By imitation here it is meant imitation in general, for example manners, clothing, figure and appearance, lifestyle etc. are included. That is why for those people who follow the trends of today, for example wear skin tight clothing, items of clothing which are unnecessarily torn in areas as part of its design, men who wear gold and silk, shave their beards or do not keep it according to the Sunnah and make fancy designs out of it, this hadeeth warns them of the severe punishment they are to expect if the they were to be raised with the disbelievers due to their acts of resemblance. This means that whoever imitates a group will be raised with them on the day of judgement.

If we imitate the Prophet May Allah send peace and blessings upon him, then on the Day of Resurrection we will be raised with him and he May Allah send peace and blessings upon him will intercede on behalf of us to Allah, Inshaallah.

If the motive for imitation is to ridicule/insult then this will be backbiting which is considered as victimisation.

Also referred to as: copying, mimicking, assimilation, take as model, to take example of.



In the Arabic language, Inheritance is known as ′Fara-idh′, which is the plural of ′Fareedah′, which means something that has been fixed, set or determined. Inheritance rights are fixed and take into consideration the rights of specific male and female members of family.

Our beloved Prophet May Allah send peace and blessings upon him said regarding learning Islamic inheritance and its importance:

"Indeed I am a man who will be taken away, therefore learn Fara-idh and teach it. The time of the disappearance of knowledge will come close, when two persons will dispute regarding an Islamic ruling and they will find no one to decide the dispute.”

Also referred to as: Fareedah, Faraaidh, Fara-idh, Legacy, bequest, endowment, birthright, estate, heritage, bestowal, bequeathal, benefaction, provision, patrimony; devise, hereditament



Shaytan tries to deflect Man from Allah′s and the Prophet′s May Allah send peace and blessings upon him methods and seduces him to follow his own methods in the practice of religion contrary to Sunnah, this is classed as Innovation. This alteration of the deen, often the over-reverance or compulsion of a practice contrary to the prophet′s May Allah send peace and blessings upon him teachings is found in the overzealous but sometimes also spreads under the guise of re-interpretations, reform and modernisation. We should look to the prophet′s May Allah send peace and blessings upon him example and that of his companions and validate our understanding of matters with reliable scholars who are equipped to analyse issues of creed and culture and are accustomed to recognise inherent risks of innovation and evaluate possible mitigations if any. Situations can be quite complex and thus Taqleed plays a big part in ensuring people are not misguided.

Also referred to as: Biddah, Bid′ah.



There is a difference between Integration and Imitation. With Integration there is interaction and cooperation in certain matters and a degree of amalgamation. There is unified formation however the entities integrating can be identified as distinct. Entities have unique attributes that differentiate them from other entities but still achieve seamless integration. This means that an entity can have, dependant on chosen attributes, a relationship with another without being absorbed, or converted.

A Muslim has a unique set of beliefs, values and practices that identify and differentiate him from non-believers but a Muslim also has certain values that are shared by others. These qualities should not be abandoned when interacting with other people, instead they should be exemplified so that good conduct can be a means of communicating the message of Islam.

Allah has created people to look different so that they may recognise each other. People are naturally physically different from one another although equal; what differentiates people spiritually and practically are their deeds. Imitation can be explained as appearing to be like another in similar form, peculiar attributes, practices or habits.

Certain actions are commonly found in many types of people however the manner in which they are performed may differ. A simple example is eating: a Muslim is required to eat using his right hand to place food in his mouth whilst many non-muslims are accustomed to using their left hand. If a Muslim and a non-muslim were to eat together or at the same location the Muslim should not assimilate the non-muslim by eating with his left hand. Another example would be clothing. Wearing a coat in the cold is common to all types of people and this would not be considered as assimilation since this is not a characteristic or representation of non-muslims and is not against Shariah. In contrast however would be publicly wearing clothing that does not sufficiently cover the Awra of a person (private parts of the body that should be covered) and hence against shariah. Likewise spending time sitting in a pub/bar whilst alcohol is being drunk is the attribute of non-muslims and against shariah. Such attendance would be assimilation and considered impermissible integration.

This does not mean a Muslim cannot communicate with, befriend or assist a non-muslim - provided requirements and conditions of Shariah or Contract are not breached in the process or as a consequence. All people should avoid bad company and their influences regardless whether they are Muslim or not.

In conclusion not all attributes or interactions are permissible hence not all integration is allowed.



Intention is the main measure of deeds as the Prophet has said ′Actions are according to Intentions′. Every act or ommision committed will be judged. Actions that are accompanied with ill intentions such as to show off can cause even a prayer to be worthless. Conversely an action which seems useless in the eyes of others may be loved by Allah due to the person′s intention as He knows what is in our heart.

Also referred to as: Niyyat, Niyyah, Niyah, Niyyaat



Also referred to as: sexual intercourse, sex, lovemaking, intimacy, coupling, mating, coitus, coition, copulation



In Islamic terminology Interest means effortless profit or that profit which comes free from compensation or that extra earning obtained that is free of exchange. " Riba` is a loan with the condition that the borrower will return to the lender more than and better than the quantity borrowed." Typically this would include conventional loans, finance, mortgages, etc. Islam recognises trade and commerce not only as a lawful profession but also as a moral duty.

However there is a distinction between trade and usury. In trade there is an exchange of the commodity for another commodity whereas in usury there is no exchange in the commodity only an increase in the units of the commodity. For example, the sale price for a particular book is 10 units of currency (Dinar,£, $, etc). The commodities here are the particular book and the 10 currency units. Let′s assume that the cost of selling the book is only 8 units of currency, the sale price being a 25% markup. When the book is sold for the 10 units there is an exchange and a profit of 2 units of currency. This is termed as Trade and the profit is Halaal.

If however the commodities were just the same types of currency there would not be an exchange of commodities and any increase or decrease in the units would be deemed as Riba, (Usury/Interest). A typical example is the lending of Money on commercial terms. For example 8 units of currency are lent and then the re-payment of 8 units back to the lender plus an additional 2 units (25% increase totalling 10 units) as Riba/Interest. This is not Trade it is Usury and is Haraam.

"Those who devour usury will not stand except as stands one whom the Satan by his touch has driven to madness. That is because they say, "trade is like usury", but Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden usury" Quran: Surah 2 verse 275

Hazrat Jabir radiyallahu anhu has reported that the Messenger of Allah May Allah send peace and blessings upon him cursed the devourer of usury, its payer, its scribe and its two witnesses. He also said that they were equal (in sin).

Also referred to as: Usury, Ribaa, Al-Riba, Sood



All intoxicants impair the faculties of thought and perception in the mind (Intoxication).

O You who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones and (divination by) arrows are an abomination of Satan′s handiwork. Avoid (such abominations) that you may prosper. Quran (5:90)

Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said; "Whatever intoxicates in a greater quantity is also unlawful in its smaller quantity." (Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah)

The scholars of all four madhab′s unanimously agree that consuming anything intoxicating is haraam, certain plants have also been included as Imam Rafee′ clearly says that, ′The scholars have included intoxicating plants etc. within the prohibition.′

When a person is intoxicated (or ′stoned′ in slang) he does not know what he is doing. He could easily kill someone or fornicate etc. In the same manner, to feed his habit, he will most probably have to steal. These are, without a shadow of a doubt, unlawful. And there is a general rule that whatever leads to something haraam (unlawful) is in itself haraam.

Also referred to as: Drugs, Alcohol, Khamar, Khamr, Sharaab, Solvent, Daaru


(Prophet) Isa

Prophet Isa Peace be upon him(Jesus -peace be upon him) ibn MaryamPeace be upon her (Mary - peace be upon her) was a Prophet of Allah and the son of the Virgin Mary (peace be upon them). Injeel (The Gospel) was revealed to him via Angel Jibraaeel Peace be upon him (Arch Angel Gabriel - peace be upon him).

"Remember the time when the angels said, "O Mary! Allah rewards you with the glad tidings of a word from Him, whose name is Masih, I′sa` (Peace be upon him) , Son of Mary (Peace be upon her), honoured in this world and in the hereafter and he will be from those who are close to Allah and he shall speak to people from the cradle and in manhood and he shall be from the righteous ones." Quran 3/46.

Prophet Isa Peace be upon him was not crucified as the rejecters plotted to kill him but instead he ascended into heaven alive.

"They (The Jews) said in boast, "We killed Jesus the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah," but they killed him not nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts with no certain knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for a surety they killed him not, but Allah raised him up unto Himself, and Allah is exalted in power, wise." Quran 4/157-158

Prophet Isa Peace be upon him is alive and will descend in his second coming as a Sign of the Hour (Doomsday).

"When the son of Mary is held up as an example, behold your people, raise a clamour at it (in ridicule); they say, "Are our gods better or he?" This they set forth to you only by way of disputation. They are, but a contentious people. He was no more than a servant. We granted Our favour upon him and We made him an example to the Children of Israel. And if it were Our will We could make angels from amongst you succeeding each other on the earth. And he (Jesus) shall undoubtedly be a sign for the coming of the Hour of Judgment. Therefore, have no doubt about the Hour but follow Me. This is a straight way (Quran, 43: 57-61)

The Prophet Muhammad May Allah send peace and blessings upon him said, "By He in whose hands my soul rests, Jesus, the Son of Maryam (Mary), is to descend amongst you as a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill the pig, abolish Jizya and wealth will increase to such an extent that one prostration will be more valuable than the whole world and all that it contains."

Prophet Isa Peace be upon him(Jesus -peace be upon him) used his one Guaranteed Dua (supplication) by asking Allah to include him in the Ummah of the Last Prophet May Allah send peace and blessings upon him Allah accepted his dua and saved him from being crucified and raised him to the second heaven. He will descend to Earth with the aid of Angels as an Ummati near the Day of Qiyaamah and kill Dajjal (The Anti-Christ).

The name of Jesus appears in Islamic literature as I′saa. The Quran mentions Jesus using the name I′sa` twenty five times in different verses.

Also referred to as: Jesus, I′sa, Masih, Messiah, I′saa, Ruh (Spirit) and Kalimah (His Word), Eesaa, ′Eesaa.



Islam is one of the main Religions of the World. The set of beliefs that constitute the principle tenets of Islam are: Belief in: One Deity called Allah, His Angels, His Revelations, His Messengers (Prophets May Allah send peace and blessings upon them all) including Prophet Muhammad May Allah send peace and blessings upon him, The Day of Judgement and that Fate both good and bad, is given by Allah and that there is Life after Death (Hereafter).

Also referred to as: Islaam



Istikharah means to make a special supplication to Allah for guidance in a matter. Istikhaarah is commonly observed for marriage, although it can be performed before starting any intended work be it a journey, business etc. Istikhaarah is an appeal to Allah to give guidance of the better between choices, when an individual is hesitant and cannot make up his decision of choosing either.

"Seek Allah′s help with patience and Salah and truly it is indeed hard except to the humble minded." (Baqarah 45)

The purpose behind Istikhaarah has been widely mistaken by people. It is to seek help and guidance from Allah in the achievement of any intended work, and not to acquire information or a report. It is merely a supplication to enable one to make the right decision. Through Istikhaarah a servant requests a beneficial outcome from Allah and should the intended be harmful that Allah will create such causes that will prevent him from carrying out his intention.

Also referred to as: Istikhara, Guidance, Appeal, Dua, Supplication, Ask.



To say ′Bimillahe-Allahhu-Akbar′ (In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest) and kissing the Black Stone (Hajre-Aswad) is called Istilaam and it is part of the rituals of Tawaf (circumambulation/circuits) of the Kaaba in Makkah, Arabia. If kissing the stone is not possible Istilaam can be performed by touching the stone with one or both hands or where contact with the stone is difficult raising both hands with the palms facing Hajre-Aswad saying Bimillahe-Allahhu-Akbar and then kissing the hands. The black stone is at one of the corners of the Kaaba.

Also referred to as: Istilam



Istinja means cleaning the private parts after passing urine or stool by using clean water, etc.

In Islam the method of relieving oneself in a manner that achieves purification, personal hygiene, public safety and morals is given great emphasis. For example the left hand is used to clean impurity and not used for eating; whilst both hands are always washed. This excellent practice was taught by the Prophet May Allah send peace and blessings upon him and it prevents contamination and the spread of diseases. Islam has not only detailed what is classified as impure and the methods of purification but it has also prevented diseases and protected public morals by restricting behaviour which cause immorality and indecency.

Also referred to as: Istinjah, Instinja′, Urinating, Passing Stool or Water, Relieving one′s self, Going to the Toilet/Washroom.