Islam A-Z (C)

Allah - 99 Names (Nasheed: Duff)


calendar | Chador | Charity | Chess | Children | Circumcision | Civilization | Clothing | Compassionate | Conduct | Cordova | Cure |



The Islamic calendar dates years from the hejira (or hijra), when Mohammed left Mecca for Medina: AD622. But, because the Muslim year is lunar and the AD year solar, it is not enough merely to deduct 622 from the AD year.

There are 12 months in the Muslim lunar year. One is Ramadan, marked by fasting; the end of Ramadan is the feast of Eid al-Fitr. Dhu al-Hijjah is the month of the hajj to Mecca and, in this month, comes the feast of of Eid al-Adha, when sheep are killed in memory of the sacrifice of a ram by Abraham.

The first month of the year is Muharram; on 10th Muharram, Shi'ites mark the martyrdom of Hussein, the prophet's grandson.



In Iran, a woman's outer covering that also hides the face.



The compulsory or voluntary act of giving possessions or something of value to general or specific people for purposes or benefit which are not contrary to Islam.

Also referred to as: zakaah, sadaqah, lillah, fisabilillah, khayrat



Chess is a board game. In Islam the playing of Chess and Backgammon are covered by the same ruling; they are both Haraam.

The prophet May Allah send peace and blessings upon him said:

“He who plays Backgammon has disobeyed Allah Ta ′ala and His (Rasool).”

The playing of chess is Haraam according to most opinions. If the playing of chess is accompanied by gambling than its prohibition is unanimous. If it is played without gambling then there is a difference of opinion in its prohibition. Where Allah Ta´┐Żaala declared alcohol and gambling as forbidden, he explained the reason for this prohibition. Allah says in the Holy Quran that Shaytan desires to create an ill feeling amongst you. He desires to create hatred among you, and to direct your attention from Salaat and Allah Taa'la's remembrance. So wherever these conditions are present, the prohibition will come into force, and that practice will become Haraam. All are aware of the degree of absorption in these games.:



In Islam a child is born sinless and has rights and is deemed a blessing for its parents regardless of gender, creed, nationality or colour. In Islam a child is defined as either a boy or a girl who has not physically reached puberty and is less than the local default age of puberty (this local age is an approximation and varies by gender, origin and geographical factors). As soon as either of these conditions is fulfilled a young person ceases to be a child and is deemed an adult and now has a different set of rights and responsibilities. Parents and children (both male and femle) have certain rights and responsibilities in Islam to each other. Respect and honour of parents also extends to parents-in-law and teachers (anyone from whom knowledge is gained). The benefit of the good deeds of children accumulate for their parent's Hereafter as they had become a means for their coming into this world.

Also referred to as: boys, girls, child, infant, toddler, kid, youngster, children, schoolboy, schoolgirl, adolescent, teenager, youth, young man, young woman, minor, junior.



Circumcision is the removal of foreskin from the male generative organ. It is a Sunnah and forms an innate male characteristic. It also helps prevent the spread of diseases.

Also referred to as: khatna, Sunnet



Before Islam many civilisations existed that mistreated women and girls to the extent that baby girls would be buried upon birth on account of their gender. Women were not allowed to own possessions and even free women were deemed inheritance objects by their own family. Gambling, fornication, adultery, intoxication, selfishness and tyranny was the norm. This age of darkness and ignorance (Jahiliyyah) for theses civilisations was brought to an end by Islam which encouraged the freeing of slaves, respect of parents, teachers and protected the rights of male and female infants. It banned and abolished sinful behavior and brought down barriers and obstacles created by caste societies and irrational culture which had inhibited progress. It pro-actively exemplified racial equality in Islamic practices such as prayer, welfare and civil rights. Islamic civilisations had central and provincial governors who were responsible for the welfare of all citizens within their domian whether they were Muslim or Non-Muslim. Financial benefits were given to the needy. People were physically protected and arrangements were made for education. Places of worship were protected, i.e. Churches and Synagogues. Many communities realised the true religion and embraced it having witnessed the humble practice of islamic teachings. Others stubbornly rejected the faith and remained kaafir but over time their decendants saw the truth and came into the fold of Islam. Thus Islam spread first and foremost by its undeniable truth such as the immigrants leave to reside by Christian King Negus (Najashee) in Abbysinia even before his own acceptance of Islam upon reciept of the beautiful letter inviting him to Islam sent by Rasullulah May Allah send peace and blessings upon him himself. The laws of Islam do not just cover worship, they also cover cleanliness, personal and social matters, economics and eduaction. Islamic teachings encompass life in the best of ways and is the only set to do so hence civilisations practicing true Islam have proven to progress.



Our main functional objective of wearing clothes is covering our satr (Awra - private parts) so that their form is not apparent and so that there is protection of the body from adverse weather conditions (including sunburning). The satr has been defined as the parts of the person which is indecent to expose. For a man this is what consists between the navel and the knee. For a female it is the entire body except the palms which must not be exposed to men. Other than the functional objective mentioned above Islam has no fixed styles of dress as clothing is regulated by necessities according to geographical conditions of countries however certain types of clothing are recommended.

Also referred to as: Libaas, Clothes, Dress, Attire, Kurta, Apparel, Outfit.



soft-heartedness, lenience



As Muslims we must ensure that our social conduct and manners are correct. We must also emphasise the need to recognise and prevent inequality in society.



When the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus ended in 750, Spain (al-Andalus) continued to be ruled independently by Umayyad princes. In 929, Abd al-Rahman proclaimed himself caliph, ruling al-Andalus from Cordova. The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordova collapsed in 1016.



Throughout life Man suffers many tribulations. Man can be very weak at times. It is not only the physical side of being human from which he suffers, but the main weakness is based in the internal, which in fact is the heart! Man's inner strength to survive the tribulations of life and the snares of Shaytan (Satan) depend on his heart. There are many reasons why the heart is affected and these are due to the negative qualities of mankind, such as ignorance, impatience, pride, greed, disbelief and oppression. These negative qualities are the cause of the human heart becoming weak and ill, and in order to purify the heart, we need to find a cure. The Quran is a cure for that which is in the heart and for the one who has the sickness of worldly desires, for it leaves certain knowledge and understanding from which the heart sees things in accordance to their reality. We need to read and understand the Quran.