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Islam A-Z (A)





Ilma (علم) Plojovic - Esma ul Husna (99 Names of Allah / 99 Allahovih imena) Official video 2013



Index



Abbasid | Abd al-Rahman | Abraham | Acceptance | Adab | Ahmadiyya | Alayhis Salaam | Alim | Allah | Alazhar | Amaanat |



Anbiya | Angels | Anger | Annulment | Aqeeqah | Arafaat | As'haab -e- Suffah | ayatollah | Awra | Azaan |





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Abbasid


Dynasty of caliphs (descended from Abbas, Mohammed's uncle); based in Baghdad, 750-1258; ended by the Mongol conquest.


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Abd al-Rahman


(891-961) Proclaimed himself Caliph of Cordova in 929. The tenth century saw a great flowering of culture in Muslim Spain (al-Andalus).


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Abraham


Ibrahim Abraham in the Old Testament, is recognized in Islam as a prophet and apostle of God (Arabic: الله‎ Allāh) and patriarch of many peoples. In Muslim belief, Abraham fulfilled all the commandments and trials which God tried him with over his lifetime. As a result of his unwavering faith in God, Abraham was promised by God to be a leader to all the nations of the world. Abraham embodies the type of the perfect Muslim and the Quran mentions Abraham as a model for mankind. In this sense, Abraham has been described as representing "primordial man in universal surrender to the Divine Reality before its fragmentation into religions separated from each other by differences in form".The Islamic holy day Eid al-Adha is celebrated in memory of the bravery of Abraham, and Muslims perform the pilgrimage to pay homage at the Kaaba which Abraham had set up and reformed.

Muslims believe that the prophet Abraham became the leader of the righteous in his time and it was through him that the people of both Arabia and Israel came. Abraham, in the belief of Islam, was instrumental in cleansing the world of idolatry at the time. Paganism was cleared out by Abraham in both Arabia and Canaan. He spiritually purified both places as well as physically sanctifying the houses of worship. Abraham and Ismail (Ishmael) further established the rites of pilgrimage, or Hajj, which are still followed by Muslims today. Muslims maintain that Abraham further asked God to bless both the lines of his progeny, of Ismail (Ishmael) and Ishaq (Isaac), and to keep all of his descendants in the protection of God.

Abrahamic religions are religions that share the patriarch Abraham in their lineage, although he plays different roles in different belief systems. Islam, Christianity, and Judaism are all considered to be part of this group, because Abraham appears in the religious texts of all of these faiths.

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Acceptance


Credence, belief, trust, confidence, faith, reliance, dependence

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Adab


Adab is that which the Prophet May Allah send peace and blessings upon Prophet Muhammad who is the Final Messenger did only once or twice throughout his life. It is a rewardable act with no reproach for one who abandons it. It has also been defined as praiseworthy manners.

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Ahmadiyya


A Non-Islamic movement who claim to be Muslims but who are unanimously rejected by all Muslim groups and classified as Non-Muslims. The Movement was set up by the impostor Mirza Gulam Ahmad of Qadian - (Pre-Independence India) who falsely claimed to be a prophet. Belief in Prophet Muhammad as the Last and Final Prophet  is a fundamental and primary principle of Islam. The Quran stated clearly that the religion of Islam is completed. The Ahmadiyya movement and its followers are thus not Muslim.

Also referred to as: Qadiyanism, Qadiyani, Mirzais, Mirzaiyat, Imposter, Qadian, Qadiani, Lahori, Ahmadiyyah.


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Alayhis Salaam


Alayhis Salaam is the transliteration of the following arabic script meaning 'Peace be upon him'. It is a prayer said/written after a Prophet's name.

Also referred to as: Alaihe Salam, AS, A.S.

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Alim


Literally means a person who has knowledge whoever it invariably means a person who has graduated from an Islamic Seminary (Darul-Uloom) having passed an advanced course in Islamic Studies including Arabic, The Holy Quran, Jurisprudence, Theolgy and Hadith Sciences. The course usually lasts at least 6 years and normally incorporates a Qari (quranic reciter) course will certainly cover 6 authentic books of Hadith; plural: Aulma, Ulama.( a female would be titled: Alima/Alimah). The words Sheikh, Shaykh are still used to denote a spirutual mentor and guide who has Khilafat (deputeeship) of a Sufi order, however these two words are now also used out of respect for a teacher and used interchangeably with the following to describe an Alim:

Also referred to as: Molana, Moulana, Movlana, Molvi, Sheikh, Shaykh, Shaikh.

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Allah


Name of God in Islam (Single Divine, Supreme Being). There is only one Diety in Islam and He is Allah. He has many names/titles, e.g. Ar-Rahman - The Most Beneficent, Ar-Raheem - The Most Merciful. He created everything including the Angels, Jinn, Mankind, the Universe, emotions; he is the giver of life and death. He is the Most Powerful and He does not depend on anyone. He does not eat, sleep or get tired; He gives sustenance to all creation and all are dependant on Him. Allah has no partners, parents, wives or children; He does not father children or give birth nor was He born. Allah has been and will always be forever. He created the concept of Time and controls it. Nobody resembles Allah, and He resembles none; He is not and cannot be depicted by any idol. He is pure from all faults. Nothing is hidden from Him; He knows the past, present and future and He knows our thoughts. None besides Him is worthy of any worship and only to Him do we pray.

Also referred to as: Rabb, God, Lord, The Creator, The Greatest, The Almighty.

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Alazhar


The remarkable mosque-university in Cairo, founded in 978. Inside, professors would lecture at a chosen pillar in the mosque. Al-Azhar continued for hundreds of years to function independently from prevailing factions.

Between 1725 and 1870, the Shaykh al-Azhar, head of the university, always belonged to the Shafi'i school of law, even though the ruling Ottomans championed the rival Hanafi school.

There was a strong Sufi influence, and al-Azhar was known for its conservatism. It continues to exert an influence in the whole Muslim world.

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Amaanat


Amaanat means a Trust. Those entrusted with an entity as amanaat must ensure that the entity survives as intended and that the trust is not breached. An example of enties could be money, a book, clothes, a position of trust such as leadership/guardianship, etc. Allah has entrusted our bodies as an amaanat upon us.

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Anbiya


Plural of Nabi (Prophet)

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Angels


Angels are one of Allah's creation and they always obey Allah. Allah has created Angels out of light (Noor) and given them various duties to perform. Some famous Angels are:

1. Angel Jibraaeel Peace be upon him (Arch Angel Gabriel - peace be upon him) who brought Allah's revelations, orders and messages to all the Prophets (peace and blessings be upon them all). Angel Mikaaeel Peace be upon him (Angel Michael - peace be upon him) is in charge of food and rain. Other Angels work under him who are in charge of clouds, the seas, the rivers and the winds. He gets the order from Allah and then delegates the work to those under his command. Angel Izraeel Peace be upon him (Angel Israel) is the angel of death who takes away life by the order of Allah. Numerous Angels work under him. Some take away the lives of good persons whilst others looking very fearful take away the lives of sinners and disbelievers. Angel Israafeel Peace be upon him (Angel Israfel) will blow the Soor (Bugle/Trumpet) on the Day of Judgement. The sound will destroy and kill everything that is on earth and in the universe. When he blows for the second time all will come to life by the order of Allah. Kiraaman-Kaatibeen are two Angels that are always with every person. One writes all his good deeds whilst the other records all his bad deeds.

2. The Angels Munkar and Nakeer question a person when he is left in his grave.

Numerous angels are in charge of various other duties such as being in charge of Heaven or Hell, some look after children, the old, the weak and whoever Allah wishes to protect, etc.

Also referred to as: Malaikah, Farishta, Malaaeeka

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Anger


It is really common that a comment or criticism or someone behaving badly makes someone angry. Becoming angry immediately is natural but becoming angry is such a way that it goes beyond its limits is certainly blameworthy. This includes doing all the things that anger demands a person to do. There are remedies and virtuous ways to reducing and controlling anger.

Allah's Messenger Muhammad May Allah send peace and blessings upon Prophet Muhammad who is the Final Messenger said: � The strong is not the one who over comes the people by his strength. But the strong is the one who controls him while in anger."

Also referred to as Rage, Gussah, Ghussah, Wrath, Fury

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Annulment


In the context of Marriage

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Aqeeqah


Aqeeqah is the sacrifice of an animal upon the 7th day after the birth of a child. The meat is normally distributed; one third to charity and the remaining two thirds to be distributed amongst friends and relatives.

Also referred to as: Aqueeqah, Aqiqah

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Arafaat


Arafaat the name of a plain about thirteen miles to the east-southeast of Makkah, Arabia.

Also referred to as: Arafa, 'Arafa, Arafah, Arafat

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As'haab -e- Suffah


In the Madrasah of Nabi Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam there was a permanent group of lovers of Allah and devotees of Rasulullah Sallallaahu alayhi wasallam who assembled at a raised platform (suffah) and were at all times engaged in the purification of the nafs, and the reformation of the Baatin by, means of practical education-This group is called As'haab -e- Suffah, later when Islam acquired a universal status, the Ulama of the Deen formulated the teachings of Islam into separate departments. Those who rendered service to the Knowledge of Hadith are called the Muhadditheen; those who undertook the responsibility of Tafseer are called the Mufassireen; those who specialized in Fiqh are called the Fuqaha while those who took custody of the department of Islaah -e- Baatin (purification of the nafs) became known as the Mashaa'ikh Sufiya

Also referred to as: Ashab as-suffa

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ayatollah


In Iran, an eminent rank of learned cleric or mujtahid

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Awra


Awra means the private parts of the body that must be covered.

Also referred to as: Satr, Awrah

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Azaan


Azaan is the audible proclamation and call to Salaah (Prayer). Azaan is given just before the Salaah as a means of announcing that 1 of the 5 congregational prayers is imminent. The Person that gives Azaan is called a Muazzin.

Also referred to as: Azan, Azhaan, Adhaan, Call, Proclamation (literal)