Assalamu-alaikum wa rahamatullahi wa barakatuhu:
I was prompted to write something on this issue when someone argued me about the historicity of Ka'bah and Makkah. This led me to get back on my favourite past-time of browsing through the references. One of the brothers (Elias) in Cambridge, UK, supplied me with some of the information on this issue and I worked on them.
Location Of Makkah
Makkah is at the intersection of latitude 21 to 25 degree north and longitude 39 to 49 degree east. It is set in a rugged landscape consisting mostly of solid granite, with rocks sometimes reaching 300 meters (1,000 feet) above see level.
Makkah is enclosed by the Valley of Abraham, which is surrounded by two nearby mountain ranges to the east, west and south. The northern range comprises the Al-Falaq and Qu'aqi'an mountains, while the southern range consists of Abu Hudaidah mountain to the west, Kuday to the south and Abu Qubais and Khindimah to the south-east.
There are three main entrances to Makkah: Al-Mu'allat (also known as Al-Hujoon), Al-Musfalah and Al-Shubaikah.
It is generally agreed that Al-Mu'allat includes all areas which are higher than the Haram and Al-Musfalah covers all areas that are lowers.
Ka'bah & Makkah In History