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2 schools of doctrine and 8 Accepted Mazhabs in Islam,

Amman Message



Source: https://makashfa.wordpress.com/2014/07/23/school-of-thoughts-found-in-islam-today-a-short-intro/



What is Ash`ari and Maturidi Aqeedah? By: Shaikhul Hadith Abu Nauman Abdur Raheem Hafizahullah



Major Doctrinal Division Within Islam!



1) Ash’ari and Maturidi Schools: Sunni Orthodoxy



These two schools of doctrine are followed by the bulk of Sunni Muslims and differ only in minor details.



Ashari School:



This School is named after the followers of the 9th century scholar Abu Hasan al-Ashari (874-936 CE) and is widely accepted throughout the Sunni Muslim World. They believe that the characteristics of God are ultimately beyond human comprehension, and trust in the Revelation is essential, although the use of rationality is important.

(1) Orthodoxy in Islam is based on verse 2:285 of the Holy Quran.let us defined by consensus of Ummah according to, in 2005 international islamic consensus meeting. Amman Message.

(a) Whosoever is an adherent to one of the four Sunni Schools (Mathahib) of Islamic jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali), the two Shi’a schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Ja’fari and Zaydi), the Ibadi school of Islamic jurisprudence and the Thahiri school of islamic jurisprudence, is a Muslim. Declaring that person an apostate is impossible and impermissible. Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property are inviolable. Moreover, in accordance with the Sheikh al-Azhar’s fatwa, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare whosoever subscribes to the Ashari creed or whoever practices real Tasawwuf (Sufism) an apostate.

Equality, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare as apostates any group of Muslims who believes in God, Glorified and Exalted be He, and His Messenger (may peace and blessings be upon him) and the pillars of faith, and acknowledges the five pillars of Islam, and does not deny any necessarily self-evident tenet of religion.

(b) There exists more in common between the various schools of Islamic jurisprudence than there is difference between them. The adherents to the eight schools of Islamic jurisprudence are in agreement as regards the basic principles of Islam. All believe in Allah (God), Glorified and Exalted be He, the One and the Unique, that the Noble Quran is the Revealed Word of God; and that our master Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), is a Prophet and Messenger unto all mankind. All are in agreement about the five pillars of Islam; the two testaments of faith (Shahadatayn); the ritual prayer (salat); almsgiving (zakat); fasting the month of Ramadan (sawm), and the Hajj to the sacred house of God (in Mecca). All are also in agreement about the foundations of belief; belief in Allah (God), His angels, His scriptures, His messengers, and in the Day of Judgment, in Divine Providence in good and in evil. Disagreements between ulema (scholars) of the eight schools of islamic jurisprudence are only with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu) and not as regards the principles and fundamentals (usul) [of the religion of Islam]. Disagreement with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu’) is a mercy. Long ago it was said that variance in opinion among the ulema (scholars) ‘isa good affair’.

(c) Acknowledgement of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence (mathahab) within Islam means adhering to a fundamental methodology in the issuance of fatwas; no one may issue a fatwa without the requisite personal qualifications which each school of Islamic jurisprudence determines [for its own adherents]. No one may issue a fatwa without adhering to the methodology of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence. No one may claim to do unlimited Ijtihad and create a new school of Islamic jursiprudence or to issue unacceptable fatwas that take Muslims out of the principles and certainties of the Sharia and what has been established in respect of its Schools of Jurisprudence.

Maturidi School:



This school is named after the followers of the 9th century scholar Muhammad Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853-944 CE) and has a wide following in regions where Hanafi Law is practiced. They have a slightly more pronounced reliance on human reason.

Salafi School:



This school was developed around the doctrines of 18th century ‘scholar‘!! Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703-1792 CE). Salafis have specific doctrinal beliefs, owing to their particular interpretation of Islam, that differentiate them from the majority of Sunnis, such as a literal anthropomorphic interpretation of God. Salafis place a great emphasis on literal interpretation of the Quran and Hadith, with skepticism towards the role of human reason in theology.



Mutazili School:



This school was developed between the 8th and 10th centuries. Although it is traced back to Wasil bin Ata (d. 748 CE) in Basra, theologians Abu al-Hudhayl al Allaf (d. 849 CE) and Bishr bin al Mu’tamir (d. 825 CE) are credited with formalizing its theological stance. Mutazili thought relies heavily on logic, including Greek philosophy. Although it no longer has a significant following, a small minority of contemporary intellectuals have sought to revive it. Mutazilites believe that the Quran was created opposed to the Orthodox Sunni view that it is eternal and uncreated. Moreover they advocate using rationalism to understand allegorical readings of the Quran.

[Important Note: Please keep in mind that we are only giving here novice information on basics and the groups found mostly followed by Muslims around the globe, although Salafi groups is not a school of thought among Muslims, because their founder does not qualify the qualities of the person who has a criteria to establish a school of thought under proper way defined by Islamic principles, further; Majority only consist of these four schools of thought from 1400 years of Islam and still they are followed i.e., (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali) in Sunni Islam, the spiritual way of Islam is called ‘Tareeqat’ (Sufism in english wrongly). Then another major group in Islam is Shia, we will explain few basic groups of Shias among themselves. In majority of Sunni Islam, ‘Salafism’ (which consists of these new names,i.e., Wahabi/Ahlu Hadith/Deobandi (at some extant)/Quranian.these four are considered out from the Circle of Islam, when they deviate from the basic fundamentals established by Pure orthodox Sunni Islam, thus if some salafi called himself (or herself) salafi, considering that they are following the Salafi, while there is open denial to the fundamentals of Islam in their false beliefs. They are not in PURE ORTHODOX circle, until they repent). Also Mu’tazalis are now not anymore in the world, as explained previously, may be some intellectuals are following that school but its vanished now.




8 Accepted Mazhabs in Islam, Amman Message



Source: http://www.ammanmessage.com/



Endorsed by Dr. Adel Elsaie. Endorsement No. 69047



The Amman Message started as a detailed statement released the eve of the 27th of Ramadan 1425 AH / 9th November 2004 CE by H.M. King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein in Amman, Jordan. It sought to declare what Islam is and what it is not, and what actions represent it and what actions do not. Its goal was to clarify to the modern world the true nature of Islam and the nature of true Islam.

In order to give this statement more religious authority, H.M. King Abdullah II then sent the following three questions to 24 of the most senior religious scholars from all around the world representing all the branches and schools of Islam: (1) Who is a Muslim? (2) Is it permissible to declare someone an apostate (takfir)? (3) Who has the right to undertake issuing fatwas (legal rulings)?

Based on the fatwas provided by these great scholars (who included the Shaykh Al-Azhar; Ayatollah Sistani and Sheikh Qaradawi), in July 2005 CE, H.M. King Abdullah II convened an international Islamic conference of 200 of the world's leading Islamic scholars 'Ulama) from 50 countries. In Amman, the scholars unanimously issued a ruling on three fundamental issues (which became known as the 'Three Points of the Amman Message'):

They specifically recognized the validity of all 8 Mathhabs (legal schools) of Sunni, Shi'a and Ibadhi Islam; of traditional Islamic Theology (Ash'arism); of Islamic Mysticism (Sufism), and of true Salafi thought, and came to a precise definition of who is a Muslim.

Based upon this definition they forbade takfir (declarations of apostasy) between Muslims.

Based upon the Mathahib they set forth the subjective and objective preconditions for the issuing of fatwas, thereby exposing ignorant and illegitimate edicts in the name of Islam.

These Three Points were then unanimously adopted by the Islamic World's political and temporal leaderships at the Organization of the Islamic Conference summit at Mecca in December 2005. And over a period of one year from July 2005 to July 2006, the Three Points were also unanimously adopted by six other international Islamic scholarly assemblies, culminating with the International Islamic Fiqh Academy of Jeddah, in July 2006. In total, over 500 leading Muslim scholars worldwide—as can be seen on this website [click here to see the entire list]—unanimously endorsed the Amman Message and its Three Points.



The Three Points of The Amman Message V.2



Frequently Asked Questions



In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful

May peace and blessings be upon the Prophet Muhammad and his pure and noble family



(1) Whosoever is an adherent to one of the four Sunni schools (Mathahib) of Islamic jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali), the two Shi’i schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Ja`fari and Zaydi), the Ibadi school of Islamic jurisprudence and the Thahiri school of Islamic jurisprudence, is a Muslim. Declaring that person an apostate is impossible and impermissible. Verily his (or her) blood, honour, and property are inviolable. Moreover, in accordance with the Shaykh Al-Azhar’s fatwa, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare whosoever subscribes to the Ash`ari creed or whoever practices real Tasawwuf (Sufism) an apostate. Likewise, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare whosoever subscribes to true Salafi thought an apostate.

Equally, it is neither possible nor permissible to declare as apostates any other group of Muslims who believes in God, Glorified and Exalted be He, and His Messenger (may peace and blessings be upon him), the pillars of faith (Iman), and the five pillars of Islam, and does not deny any necessarily self-evident tenet of religion.

(2) There exists more in common between the various schools of Islamic jurisprudence than there is difference between them. The adherents to the eight schools of Islamic jurisprudence are in agreement as regards the basic principles of Islam. All believe in Allah (God), Glorified and Exalted be He, the One and the Unique; that the Noble Qur’an is the Revealed Word of God preserved and protected by God, Exalted be He, from any change or aberration; and that our master Muhammad, may blessings and peace be upon him, is a Prophet and Messenger unto all mankind. All are in agreement about the five pillars of Islam: the two testaments of faith (shahadatayn); the ritual prayer (salat); almsgiving (zakat); fasting the month of Ramadan (sawm), and the Hajj to the sacred house of God (in Mecca). All are also in agreement about the foundations of belief: belief in Allah (God), His angels, His scriptures, His messengers, and in the Day of Judgment, in Divine Providence in good and in evil. Disagreements between the ‘ulama (scholars) of the eight schools of Islamic jurisprudence are only with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu`) and some fundamentals (usul) [of the religion of Islam]. Disagreement with respect to the ancillary branches of religion (furu`) is a mercy. Long ago it was said that variance in opinion among the ‘ulama (scholars) “is a mercy”.

(3) Acknowledgement of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Mathahib) within Islam means adhering to a fundamental methodology in the issuance of fatwas: no one may issue a fatwa without the requisite qualifications of knowledge. No one may issue a fatwa without adhering to the methodology of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence. No one may claim to do unlimited Ijtihad and create a new opinion or issue unacceptable fatwas that take Muslims out of the principles and certainties of the Shari`ah and what has been established in respect of its schools of jurisprudence.