Allah stated the facts about the Big Bang and the expansion of the
universe. This is simply because He is the Creator of the Big Bang and
the cause of the expansion. These two facts were stated in the Quran in
In any direction they look, astronomers see galaxies moving away
from us. It may be assumed that this expansion will continue forever, with
galaxies becoming more and more thinly dispersed. However, the theory
of relativity and physics of the cosmos derived from it predicts that the
end of the universe can follow only three possibilities:
Future of the universe
1. The universe may expand to a maximum, before converging again.
This is called the Big Crunch.
2. The galaxies may spread apart with the radius of the universe
reaching infinity after infinite time.
3. The radius of the universe reaches a certain value (not infinite) and
finally stops expanding after infinite time.
An attempt to resolve this mystery is based upon whether or not the
universe is surrounded by a huge boundary. Depending upon the location
and the properties of this boundary, the universe may reverse to the Big
Crunch if the boundary is extremely solid. This is like throwing a ball on
a rigid wall. The name for this event, according to cosmologists, is the Big
Bounce that will be followed by the Big Crunch. If the boundary of the
universe is not strong enough, the impact of the expanding universe will
overcome the boundary and the universe will increase its radius forever
or reach a certain radius and stop after infinite time. However, there are
many problems with this model. Where is this boundary? And what exists
on the other side of the boundary?
Prediction of the future of the universe represents fascinating
intellectual problems, the answer of which may not be in the realm of
human capabilities. However, the summary of our present situation can
be stated as follows: “What we really have is local events, based upon
limited measurements that are not precise and we are trying to extrapolate
those local events to solve global universal events.” The following
examples represent some analogies from our daily life of what we are
trying to achieve:
♦ From our observations of the weather in a small place on earth
during a limited time, we are trying to predict the weather on earth
♦ By studying an earthquake in one city on earth that happened at
a certain time in the past, we are trying to establish a complete
picture of all the future earthquakes in all places at all times.
In the above two examples, it seems that we have all the information
that we need to establish an accurate prediction of the weather or
earthquakes. We live on earth. We know the rules of movement of
cold and warm fronts. We have good foundations in aerodynamics.
We can get the properties of the earth. We know how an earthquake
starts. And above all, we have a long history of information on
weather and earthquakes. So, why cannot we predict weather or
earthquakes precisely? The answer is that these two problems are
very complicated and we just do not know how to solve them.
Studying life and death of the stars is a very difficult process, because
cosmologists cannot examine the development of stars from life to death.
This cycle is estimated to take billions of years. Besides, all information
received from a star comes from the surface and not its core. Then, we use
the information from the surface to predict what happened inside the core.
Allah refers to death of stars as follows:
“Then when the stars become dim.” (Surah 77, Ayah 8)
“When the stars fall, losing their luster.” (Surah 81, Ayah 2)
The above two Ayat state that all stars, including our sun will become
faint and fade away. What kind of stunning statements are those in the
As stars and planets have different structures and different birth
processes, they also have different ends.
“When the stars (planets) are scattered.” (Surah 82, Ayah 2)
“When the earth is shaken to her (utmost) convulsion, And the earth
throws up her burdens (from within), And man cries (distressed):
′What is the matter with her?.” (Surah 99, Ayah 1-3)
The above Ayat describe the death of planets and the earth by
huge earthquakes, accompanied by volcanic eruptions, throwing away
enormous boulders and lava from beneath the crust of the earth. They are
thrown up as if they were a burden to the earth personified. So in the great
and final convulsion, the dead who had been buried and forgotten will rise
and will be crying in distress about what is happening.
The end of the universe as a whole is referred to in the Quran in
many verses, as follows:
“The Day that We roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for
books. Even as we produced the first creation, so shall we produce
a new one.”(Surah 21, Ayah 10)
“And the sun and moon are joined together.” (Surah 75, Ayah 9)
In the first Ayah, Allah states that before the Day of Judgment, the
heavens will be rolled up as the scrolls are rolled up. And in the second
Ayah, He stated that the sun and the moon will be joined together. This can
be a reference to stopping the expansion of the universe, and collapsing it
all. Most likely, this is a reference to the recent theory of the Big Crunch.
And Allah knows the best.
Scientists tell us the end of the universe is going to happen after
billions of years. The cosmic model that they are using is missing a great
deal of information, the least of which is the mass of the universe. This
concept introduces in the human mind that the Day of Judgment is far
away and we have nothing to be concerned about. No one really knows
when the end will come. The Creator of all the physical laws can certainly
stop these laws, or create another set of laws that fit the Big Crunch.
Another possibility is that the existing cosmos has phantom interstellar
objects and that the Big Crunch may happen at any time. The Creator of
this whole universe said:
“And Our Command is but a single Word, like the twinkling of an
eye.” (Surah 54, Ayah 50)
In this Ayah, Allah tells us that the execution of His Command,
any Command, is like the twinkling of an eye, which is the shortest
time a simple human can imagine: the closing of the eyelids and their
reopening are all almost like a simultaneous act. In Allah′s Command,
the word “Be” includes everything, without the intervention of, or the
dependence upon any other being or thing whatsoever. An earthquake,
a tornado, or any other earthly event can happen at any time and in any
place. It seems incomprehensible that we live on this earth and we have
the means to measure and the theories to predict many of things and yet
we cannot predict accurately one earthly earthquake. With our theoretical
background, our huge and extremely fast computers and our records of
the past earthly events, we fail miserably to save lives if a catastrophe
were to happen.