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Mehmed the Conqueror



For Mehmed II his ghazi goal was obvious � Constantinople.



Courtesy of http://www.theottomans.org/english/campaigns_army/Mehmed-the-Conqueror.asp





Khalifah (Sultan) Muhammad Al Fatih



Mehmed II, also known as The Conqueror is one of the famous sultans of Ottoman Empire with his intelligence. Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman for a brief time, from 1444 to 1446, after his father. After that time Sultan Murad II renounced the throne but when he died Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481. Mehmet II was a genius statesman and a military leader who was also interested in literature, fine arts and monumental architecture. He was educated by famous scholar Aksemseddin and according to Ottoman historians he was speaking seven languages fluently.

Mehmed II was born as a son of Sultan Murad I and Huma Hatun on the night of 29th binded to 30th March 1432, in Edirne. His early childhood passed on Edirne for a while. He motivated for taking the city of Constantinople by Prophet Hz Muhammed�s words for the conqueror of Constantinople decades ago; �One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!� Sultan Mehmed II, overthrew the Byzantine Empire by conquering Constantinople as consolidating the Ottoman Empire and marking the end of the Middle Ages. He took the name "conqueror" (fatih) after the conquest of Istanbul on 29th May 1453. The conquest of Istanbul spelled the end of the Byzantine Empire and entered a phase of urban revival under the wise and tolerant administrations of Mehmed and his immediate successors

The capture of Istanbul was followed by a long succession of campaigns which resulted in a tremendous extension of direct Ottoman rule. After the conquest of the city, Mehmed the Conqueror marched towards Morea and captured the cities of Greece one after another. However, he was threatened from the rear by the principality of Karaman and therefore turned to Anatolia to vanquish them and to annex their territory. He then conquered the area close to western Black Sea and appointed as governor Kızıl Ahmet who was the founder of the principality Isfen-diyar. Afterwards, he fought Uzun Hasan, the ruler of the Akkoyunlus and overcame him.Among those areas that fell to Mehmet II were Serbia, Greece, the Empire of Trezibizond, Wallachia, Bosnia, Karaman, Albania and several Venetian and Geneose maritime establishments.

Mehmed 2nd�s wifes were Gulbahar Hatun, Gulshah Hatun, Sitti Mukrime Hatun, Cicek Hatun, Helene Hatun, Anna Hatun and Alexias Hatun. He had a daughter named Gevrehan Sultana and sons; Mustafa, Bayezid II (Sultan after Mehmed II), Cem and Korkut. Mehmed II was dressed in the simple and heroic manner of his great grandfather �elebi Mehmed. His turban consisted of a ''m�cevveze'' (a tall cylindrical headgear) in military style, wound round with coiled gauze. This special type of turban became fashionable among later sultans.

The Codes of Mehmed II was very important document for his era. It was a constitution ordering the state men duties and legalizing the fratricide for the order of the empire. This code included establishing various organizational positions, produce a form of law that suited the growing empire's geography and state organizations after the conquest of Constantinople.

He ruled the Ottoman Empire for 30 years and joined 25 campaigns himself. He was a very strict statesman and a very brave soldier. The great emperor had died on 3rd May 1481 and he was buried in "Fatih Turbesi" (tomb), near the Mosque of Fatih in Istanbul. After the Sultan�s death, the Ottoman Empire remained culturally and geographically strong.

Biography



Fatih Sultan MehmedMehmed II, also known as The Conqueror is one of the famous sultans of Ottoman Empire with his intelligence. Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman for a brief time, from 1444 to 1446, after his father. After that time Sultan Murad II renounced the throne but when he died Mehmed II ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481. Mehmet II was a genius statesman and a military leader who was also interested in literature, fine arts and monumental architecture. He was educated by famous scholar Aksemseddin and according to Ottoman historians he was speaking seven languages fluently.

Mehmed II was born as a son of Sultan Murad I and Huma Hatun on the night of 29th binded to 30th March 1432, in Edirne. His early childhood passed on Edirne for a while.

Mehmed II motivated for taking the city of Constantinople by Prophet Hz Muhammed�s words for the conqueror of Constantinople decades ago; �One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!� Sultan Mehmed II, overthrew the Byzantine Empire by conquering Constantinople as consolidating the Ottoman Empire and marking the end of the Middle Ages. He took the name �conqueror� (fatih) after the conquest of Istanbul on 29th May 1453. The conquest of Istanbul spelled the end of the Byzantine Empire and entered a phase of urban revival under the wise and tolerant administrations of Mehmed and his immediate successors.

The capture of Istanbul was followed by a long succession of campaigns which resulted in a tremendous extension of direct Ottoman rule. After the conquest of the city, Mehmed the Conqueror marched towards Morea and captured the cities of Greece one after another. However, he was threatened from the rear by the principality of Karaman and therefore turned to Anatolia to vanquish them and to annex their territory. He then conquered the area close to western Black Sea and appointed as governor Kızıl Ahmet who was the founder of the principality Isfen-diyar. Afterwards, he fought Uzun Hasan, the ruler of the Akkoyunlus and overcame him.Among those areas that fell to Mehmet II were Serbia, Greece, the Empire of Trezibizond, Wallachia, Bosnia, Karaman, Albania and several Venetian and Geneose maritime establishments.

Mehmed 2nd�s wifes were Gulbahar Hatun, Gulshah Hatun, Sitti Mukrime Hatun, Cicek Hatun, Helene Hatun, Anna Hatun and Alexias Hatun. He had a daughter named Gevrehan Sultana and sons; Mustafa, Bayezid II (Sultan after Mehmed II), Cem and Korkut. Mehmed II was dressed in the simple and heroic manner of his great grandfather �elebi Mehmed. His turban consisted of a ��m�cevveze�� (a tall cylindrical headgear) in military style, wound round with coiled gauze. This special type of turban became fashionable among later sultans.

The Codes of Laws of Mehmed II was very important document for his era. It was a constitution ordering the state men duties and legalizing the fratricide for the order of the empire. This code included establishing various organizational positions, produce a form of law that suited the growing empire�s geography and state organizations after the conquest of Constantinople.

He ruled the Ottoman Empire for 30 years and joined 25 campaigns himself. He was a very strict statesman and a very brave soldier. The great emperor had died on 3rd May 1481 and he was buried in �Fatih Turbesi� (tomb), near the Mosque of Fatih in Istanbul. After the Sultan�s death, the Ottoman Empire remained culturally and geographically strong.

Conquest of Constantinople



İstanbul'un FethiThe capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Army, under the command Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II on 29th May 1453. With this conquest Ottomans became an Empire and one of the most powerful empires, The Eastern Roman Empire fell and lasted. After the Constantinople conquest, 21 years old Ottoman Sultan II. Mehmed also took the title �The Conqueror� added to his name.

Altough his early age, Sultan II Mehmed, started to prepare siege for İstanbul. He wanted to be the commander as Prophet Hz Muhammed mentioned the conqueror of Constantinople; �One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!� decades ago. First he took precautions with strategic tactics in both inside and outside of the state. After this, he moved to conquer Constantinople.

Constantinople had been an imperial for many years. The city were bombarded by cannon fires which was designed by Mehmed the Second himself. Constantinople had been attacked in the past many times, but its great walls always prevailed. Sultan Mehmed, II changed this with the use of cannons forever. Sultan�s massive cannon fired on the walls for weeks.

Baltaoglu Suleyman Bey launched the first attack to enter the Golden Horn gulf on 9th April 1453 and failed to break the chains which was placed at the mouth of the horn. This chain, which floated on wooden logs, was strong enough to prevent any Ottoman ship from entering Golden Horn. The victory of the Pope�s Christian and Genoese ships decreased the morale of the Ottoman army.

During this chaos and widespread feeling of lose, with the Sultan�s spiritual menthor Aksemseddin promised certain success about the conquest. Sultan Mehmed improved a new type of cannon as called as �humbara�, today known as �howitzer� which is taken an aim for shooting the target. It is an important discovery for the world�s army history. Cannons were not enough to take the city. Encouraged by spiritual support, Sultan II Mehmed, decided plan for his navy. The Ottoman fleet anchored in Dolmabahce would be moved to the Golden Horn gulf by land as an element of surprise. Several ships and galleys carried by soldiers via rope were slid over slipways. In the morning of 22th April, Eastern Roman Empire woke up with a surprise and terrified when they saw Ottoman galleys in the horn.

On 29th May, the Ottoman army attacked for the final assault. The siege lasted from Friday, 6 April 1453 until 29 May 1453 Tuesday when the city was conquered by the Ottomans under the command of Sultan II. Mehmed. A new era started on the world and a new balance came through by the conquest of Constantinople.

Campaigns



Fatih'in Seferleri The new era began with the conquest of Constantinople of Sultan Mehmed II but this was not his only success, he was a talented military leader in his campaigns too... While Mehmed II�s conquest of Constantinople served all the above purposes, it was also a political and strategic necessity.

Sultan Mehmed II�s first campaigns after Constantinople were in the direction of Serbia who was an Ottoman vassal since the Battle of Kosovo. After his sieges the land returned to the sultan�s subjugation. In the area of the Black Sea, Mehmed was also successful. He had forced tribute from the various Genoese colonies, later occuping them outright. Crimea became a vassal state of the Empire by making the entire sea virtually an Ottoman lake.

At his era, Ottoman�s most powerful enemies were Hungary in land and Venice at sea. Both enemies of Ottomans didn�t want to fight with the empire in single combat. Mehmed the Conqueror marched towards Morea and captured the cities of Greece one after another. However, he was threatened from the rear by the principality of Karaman and therefore turned to Anatolia to vanquish them and to annex their territory. He then conquered the area close to western Black Sea and appointed as governor Kızıl Ahmet who was the founder of the principality Isfen-diyar.

Afterwards, Sultan Mehmed II fought with Uzun Hasan, the ruler of the Akkoyunlus and overcame him. In 1472, Hasan�s forces raided the city of Tokat and marched well into western Anatolia. Among those areas that fell to Mehmet II were Serbia, Greece, the Empire of Trezibizond, Wallachia, Bosnia, Karaman, Albania and several Venetian and Geneose maritime establishments.

Mehmed spent his years preparing to meet more renewed challenges. He built a lively capital of a growing Ottoman Empire that would be a ruler and major world power over the next centuries. He was just beginning new campaigns to capture Rhodes Island and southern Italy when he died suddenly in 1481.

The Code



Fatih'in KanunnamesiOne of the most important developments in Mehmed II Era in Ottoman, was the Code of Law (Kanunname) which commanded establishing various organizational positions, produce a form of law that suited the growing empire's geography and state organizations after the conquest of Constantinople.

It is always argued that The Code of Sultan Mehmed�s legalizing fratricide (the killing of one's brother or sister). A policy of royal fratricide was introduced by Sultan Mehmet II whose grandfather Mehmed I had to fight a bloody civil war against his brothers to take the Ottoman throne. As in the Sultan Mehmed II Code the majority of the Ottoman scholars permitted it as well. Sultan�s Code defended fratricide this code as using for the continuation of unity of the state and prosperity of people. In his codes, Mehmed clearly legitimized a sultan�s executing his brothers for the sake of the imperial order.

Sultan II Mehmed�s Fratricide Code in Turkish as in the below:

"Ve her kimesneye evl�dımdan saltanat m�yesser ola, karındaşların niz�m-ı �lem i��n katl itmek m�n�sibdir. Ekser ulem� dahi tecviz etmişlerdir. Anınla �mil olalar�

By his �Code� Sultan Mehmed II created new law codes dealing with administrative and criminal justice, military affairs, dicipline of statemen and the organization order for religious hierarchy.