Islamic Civilization and History

16th Century (1500 - 1599) C.E

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1500: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat.

1501: Isamil I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion.

1507: The Portuguese under d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf.

1508: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, End of the White Sheep dynasty and the annexation of their territories by the Safawids.

1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims.

1517: The Ottoman Sultan Selim Yavuz ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks and conquers Egypt.

1520: The reign of Sulayman the Magnificent begins.

1526: Louis of Hungary dies at the Battle of Mohacs.

1526: The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra.

1528: The Ottomans take Buda in Hungary.

1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.

1550: The architect Sinan builds the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul.

1550: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra.

1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo.

1556: The death of Sulayman the Magnificent.

1568: Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism) in Spain.

1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.

1578: The Battle of the Three Kings at Qasr al-Kabir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.

1588: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I begins.

1591: Mustaili Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.