1500: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat.
1501: Isamil I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion.
1507: The Portuguese under d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian Gulf.
1508: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, End of the White Sheep dynasty and the annexation of their territories by the Safawids.
1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims.
1517: The Ottoman Sultan Selim Yavuz ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks and conquers Egypt.
1520: The reign of Sulayman the Magnificent begins.
1526: Louis of Hungary dies at the Battle of Mohacs.
1526: The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his capital at Delhi and Agra.
1528: The Ottomans take Buda in Hungary.
1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.
1550: The architect Sinan builds the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul.
1550: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra.
1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo.
1556: The death of Sulayman the Magnificent.
1568: Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to Catholicism) in Spain.
1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.
1578: The Battle of the Three Kings at Qasr al-Kabir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.
1588: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I begins.
1591: Mustaili Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.