Copyright © By Dr. Adel Elsaie, Book Title: "History of Truth, The Truth about God and Religions"
3.7 Discrediting Evolution: Mutation
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Just how did evolution happen? What is the basic mechanism that is claimed to cause evolution from one species to another? Evolutionists found an answer in the study of heredity and mutation. The transfer of hereditary characteristics usually produces normal results. This is manifested by, for example, the production of white children from white parents, and the production of black children from black parents. But, sometimes changes happen in the genetic message resulting from alterations in either chromosomes or genes. This change is called mutation. Thus, mutation is considered the basis for evolution.
Evolutionists believe that evolutionary changes take place over a long period of time (thousands or even millions of years) to allow one species to evolve to another. They often suggest that evolution in action provides direct evidence of evolution. Some examples are often cited to present their weak case. Penicillin kills many kinds of bacteria. However, sometimes a few bacteria survive the penicillin attack. They live to form colonies of bacteria that resist this form of penicillin, and they continue to produce more bacteria resistant to penicillin. When another treatment of the same penicillin is administered, all bacteria that are not resistant die, while those that are resistant survive to reproduce. Do the surviving bacteria evolve to a new species? No, they are still bacteria. So, how does this example support the evolution?
Mutations can be caused by radiation and high temperature. The rate at which mutations occur varies widely. Evolutionists concentrate upon the examples where mutations occur fast to support their claims. Another example is often cited is the fruit flies in England in the early 1900ís. Fruit flies are small (about 2 mm in length), easily handled, and they produce many offspring in two weeks. A male was found in 1910 with white eyes from a pure line having only red eyes. Experiments in hereditary were performed to breed white-eyed male with red-eyed females. Studies were also performed on curly-winged fruit flies when bred at high and low temperature. Curly - winged flies bred at 25 0 C will have offspring with curly wings. However, when bred at 16 0 C, offspring will have straight wings. Regardless of the color of eyes or the shape of the wings, the fruit flies remained fruit flies. They did not change to another species.
A third example of the alleged observable evolution was the English moths. In these moths there are two colors, light and dark. H. B. D. Kettlewell found that dark moths constituted less than 2% of the population prior to 1848. The frequency of the dark moths increased in the following years. By 1898, the 95% of the moths in Manchester and other highly industrialized areas were of the dark type. Their frequency was less in rural areas. The moth population changed from mostly light colored moths to mostly dark colored moths. A single gene primarily determined the mothís color. Again, moths were moths before and after industrialization. Evolutionists consider this change as a case of mutation that supports the evolution. Jastrow, defending Darwin and hailing this discovery, wrote in his book Red Giants and White Dwarfs: "Had he known it (The English moth), an example was at hand which would have provided him with the proof he needed. The case was an exceedingly rare one." The English medical journal On Call referred to using this example as "notorious." It declared: "This is an excellent demonstration of the function of camouflage, but, since it begins and ends with moths and no new species is formed, it is quite irrelevant as evidence for evolution."
The mutation may well be understood within the framework of the Law of Repetition. Mutation represents the irregularity in a uniform non-mutant life process. On a large scale, antibiotics kill many kinds of bacteria, but some bacteria become resistant to one kind of antibiotics. In this case the treatment involves more than one kind of antibiotics. Mutation is the exception and not the rule.
It is obvious that mutations discredit evolution.