Copyright © By Dr. Adel Elsaie, Book Title: "History of Truth, The Truth about God and Religions"

3.6 Discrediting Evolution: Comparative Anatomy

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From Protozoans to Invertebrates?

From Invertebrates to Vertebrates?

From Fish to Amphibian?

From Reptile to Bird?

From Reptile to Mammal?

What is the Origin of Insects?

What is the Origin of Plants?

The fossil record establishes the evidence of all life forms that existed on our planet. As we have seen the fossil record clearly does not support the claim of the evolutionists that life evolved from one life form to another in a very long time. The biological Bang at the start of the Cambrian period represents a major crisis in the evolution hypothesis. The lack of consistent and abundant transitional links between different species is an obvious puzzle in the evolutionary ladder.

Darwin used the buzz word "natural selection" that was actually introduced by Malthus and coined it with intuitive marketing and selling power. Now, most people on Earth know about natural selection, just as they know about hamburgers.

Any life form that lives on Earth has to interact with the environment. Living organisms have to move, reproduce, take nutrition, and dispose waste. As such, they have to have systems that allow the performance of the tasks of living. The study of systems of different organisms is called comparative anatomy. For example, dogs, sheep, and horses have similar legs and foot structures in number and position of bones. Each, however, is slightly different. The main structure of humanís arms, lionís fore limb, and birdís wing is also similar with slight variation. Does comparative anatomy support evolution, or is it another version of the Law of Repetition? The evolutionists believe that comparative anatomy is another "proof" of the evolution. This is without single evidence in the fossil record that details a transformation of one species to another. The fact that the main structure of the legs or fore limbs in some creatures is similar can well be understood. They are considered the optimal structure for moving in the common environment. This is just like saying that wheels are the optimal structure for moving cars on the common ground. The general appearance of all wheels is the same in spite of differences in size or treads patterns. No evolutionist can conclude that wheels evolved from a common ancestor without being considered insane.

Comparative anatomy indicates a Creative genius is behind all that, and His Law of Repetition is at work. In Galapagos, Darwin observed the famous 13 different kinds of finches. This is always presented as a "proof" of evolution from one ancestor finch to 13 "species" based upon the shape of their beaks. This can simply be explained as a Divine adaptation of the shape of the beaks to the eating habits of the finches. They are all still finches. They didnít evolve from or to other species. They represent variations within the same family of finches. The family of humans has more variations than the family of finches. Within the family of humans, there are different races, based upon the geographic location of the races. A classification of the human race may be defined as black, red, yellow, and white. There are many variations between these broad classifications. If you assemble a group of humans from Nigeria, China, Pakistan, Sweden, Eskimo, and Brazil with different heights, colors, and shapes of eyes and lips, can any evolutionist claim that they belong to different species? Or, are they the same species with variations to adapt in their environments?

The point is all species share many common features that are required for living in the same Earthís environment, and differ in the detail and specifics that suit the differences in the common environment. The fossil record and the existing life forms support the existence of varieties within one species and reject the concept of evolution from one species to another.

The following part will focus on the assumed transitional forms from one species to another. As you read on, consider the probability of each change happening by chance and spontaneously. The deception that some neo-evolutionist zoologists play on their studentsí mind is to show two creatures from two species that have some similarities, and then make the superficial point that evolution is correct.

From Protozoans to Invertebrates?

One of the most important fossil gaps is that between the protozoans, one celled microorganism, found in Precambrian fossils, and the abundant complex marine invertebrate life of the Cambrian. Invertebrates are life forms that do not have backbones, such as sponges and jellyfish. How did that happen? The fossil record is absolutely silent.

From Invertebrates to Vertebrates?

Vertebrates are life forms that have backbones. Invertebrates have soft inner parts and hard outer shells; vertebrates have soft outer parts and hard inner parts, skeleton. The earliest vertebrates were certain kinds of fish. How did the backbone of vertebrates evolve? Did it evolve in steps, or as one piece? There is no evidence at all.

From Fish to Amphibian?

Fish: There exist about 25,000 species of fish. They have fins, gills, and streamlined body.

Amphibian example: Amphibian is a creature that could live in both water and on land, such as frogs and toads. (Greek, amphi. Both or double, + bios, life).

Backbones: The backbone of fish would have had to undergo major adjustments for the fish to become amphibians. You donít have to be an anatomist to look at a fish and a frog, and imagine how the backbone of the fish changed by itself to that of the frog.

Pelvis: Amphibian has pelvis, while fish do not. No fossil fish exists that show how the pelvis of amphibians evolved from fish.

Skull: The front part of the skull of frogs is larger than that of fish, whereas the back of the skull is much smaller. Look at the skull bones of fish and frogs. Are they similar or different?

Fins & limbs: Evolution assumes that fish fins evolved to jointed limbs in amphibians. This requires major alterations in muscles and nerves.

Gills & Lungs: For fish to evolve to amphibians, gills must change to lungs. Extensive efforts to attach the amphibian to some fish ancestors have all failed. The lungfish has been a preferred example, since in addition to gills; it has air bladder of single or paired lobes for breathing when it is temporarily out of water. This air bladder is also called swim bladder because it acts as a flotation device. Some evolutionists are tempted to think the air bladder evolved to lung. Why did not all other fish develop air bladder?

Hearts: In fish, hearts consist of two chambers, but in amphibians, hearts consist of three chambers. Fish fossils do not show how the third chamber was developed.

Hearing: Fish have receptor cells through their bodies for detecting wave vibrations and currents in water, but most frogs and toads have eardrums.

Tongues: Fish do not have an extendible tongue, but amphibians do.

Eyes: Fish do not blink, whereas amphibian eyes can blink.

From Amphibian to Reptile?

Reptile examples: Dinosaurs, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, turtles. (Latin, repto, to creep)

Fertilization: External fertilization is the main rule in amphibians where eggs are soft and jelly like. Embryos in amphibian eggs release their waste in the surrounding water as soluble urea. Reptiles reproduce by internal fertilization. They have new sexual organs and new mating procedures that require major changes in anatomy and instinct. After the internal fertilization, the zygote travels into the oviduct, and develops a shell around it. Shelled eggs provide a complete environment for the developing embryo. They supply protection, moisture and food and a means for gas exchange and waste removal. Inside the shell there are various membranes and sacs. A sac holds the fluid in which the embryo grows. Another sac receives and stores embryonic wastes, serving as a bladder. The yolk sac contains blood vessels through which the food passes to the embryo. The entire embryo is surrounded with a sac filled with fluid to keep it moist. The reptile embryo is distinctive in having an egg tooth to help it break out of egg. The reptilesí complex eggs are supposed to be evolved from the soft eggs of the amphibians. How did the shell evolve? How did the sacs and membranes evolve?

From Reptile to Bird?

Birdsí example: Pigeons, geese, ducks, parrots, hawks, owls.

Flight: Flight of birds is one of the biggest mysteries in the evolution theory. Neo-evolutionists speculate that birds had to fly to escape attacks from wild animals. All species have enemies. Why do not zebras fly to escape attacking tigers? And why do not tigers grow wings to fly after zebras? Actually, Why not all species fly? Simply, birds fly because God wants them to fly. There is no other reasonable explanation.

Bird's flight, especially the familiar flapping of birds, is a very complex process. Despite careful analysis by conventional aerodynamic techniques and high speed photography, bird's flight is not well understood. Nevertheless, we know that the bird wing is an airfoil that is subject to recognized laws of aerodynamics. The aerodynamic shape of the wing causes suction on the upper surface and pressure on the lower surface of the wing. The result is a net upward force, which is called lift that lifts birds in air.

Blood: Birds are warm-blooded endothermic. Their bodies maintain relatively constant internal temperature regardless of the outside temperature. Reptiles, on the other hand, are cold-blooded exothermic. Their internal temperature will either decrease or increase depending upon the outside temperature. Changing the blood from cold to warm is another big mystery for the evolution. Some evolutionists claim that some dinosaurs were warm blooded. However, the general view is still dinosaurs, like all reptiles, were cold blooded.

Heart: In birds, hearts consist of four chambers, but in reptiles, hearts consist of three chambers. Reptilesí fossils do not show how the fourth chamber was developed.

Bones: The bones of birds are hollow and thin, to reduce their weights during flying, while the reptilesí are solid. There are braces inside the birdís bones like the stiffeners inside the airplane wings to add strength. How did the bones of birds become hollow and grow braces inside the bones? No answer.

Eyes: Birds have very sharp eyes so they can see from high altitude, and pick worms between grasses. Birds have more sensory cells in their eyes than any other creature.

Beaks: Beaks are exclusive to birds. Birds have beaks that come in many variations, such as crushing or fishing beaks. The evolutionists claim that beaks, with such specialized design evolved by chance from the noses of reptiles! This is another wild imagination of the evolutionists.

Feet: Birds have only four toes, while reptiles have five.

Sound: Birds do not have vocal chords, but they have vibrating vocal muscles, which produce harmonious songs like those of the mockingbirds and nightingales.

Respiratory system: In reptiles and mammals, lungs inhale and exhale air like bellows that alternately become full and empty. But birds have the most efficient respiratory system of all vertebrates. Many details of that system are not yet fully understood. It differs completely from the lungs of the reptiles. Also unique is the adaptation for meeting the high demands of flight. A Bird has two lungs and an extensive system of nine interconnecting air sacs. These sacs are also extended by tiny tubes into some of the long bones. During flight, a pigeon, for example, generate 27 times more heat than when at rest. However, birds do not have sweat glands to reduce their temperature. Therefore the respiratory system of birds ensures constant flow of fresh air to the lung, and in the same time act like an air-cooled engine. When the birds inhale, the air goes to some air sacs that push the air into the lungs. From the lungs, the air goes into other air sacs to expel it. The blood in the capillaries of the lungs flows against the airflow. The red blood cells in the birdís blood carry more hemoglobin, and thus, more oxygen supplied to the flight muscles. Because of that, birds can breathe the thin air of high altitudes, flying at over 20,000 feet for days as they travel thousands of miles. The body heat is relieved by internal circulation of the air between the air sacs, and the hollow bones. How did such a miraculous system evolve? The complexity and efficiency of this system is a definite proof for creation and not for evolution.

Eggs: Both reptiles and birds lay eggs. However, the incubation process of birds is totally unique. Some birds have a spot on the breast that does not have feathers and contains many blood vessels to give warmth to the eggs. Birds, without such a spot, pull out the feathers from their breast. This process requires new instincts for building the nest, for hatching the eggs and for feeding the young. This incubation process is a greatly unselfish, considerate behavior involving skills, hard work and exposure to danger.

Feathers: They are unique to birds. Evolutionists claim that scale in reptiles evolved to these marvelous structures. A feather is very lightweight, yet possesses remarkable toughness, and tensile strength. The shaft of a feather is a hollow cylinder with inside stiffeners. Out from the shaft of a feather are rows of barbs that are arranged in a closely parallel fashion and spread diagonally outwards. Each barb may have many barbules on each side. Each barbule has hundreds of barbicels with tiny hooks. After microscopic examination of a pigeon feather, it was revealed that it had several hundred thousands barbules, and millions of barbicels and hooks. These hooks hold all the parts of the feather together to make flat surfaces or vanes. A feather is an excellent airfoil as well as efficient insulator. A bird like a swan has some 25,000 feathers. How did this structural marvel evolve from scale? No Answer.

Archaeopteryx: "meaning ancient wing" This 150 million years old bird was believed by evolutionists to be the ancestor of modern birds that evolved from reptiles. It is interesting to note that archaeopteryx is presented in biology and zoology books and some dictionaries as the missing link between reptiles and birds. Its fossilized remains revealed reptilian features: toothed jaws and a reptile-like jaw articulation. It was a bird with wings and hollow leg bones. Its reptilian features exist in many modern birds. It was not the ancestor of modern birds because other fossils of birds were discovered in the same Bavarian rocks of the same geological period. No one really knows what it was.

From Reptile to Mammal?

Mammals: About 4,000 species. (Latin, mamma, breast). Mammals vary in size from 1.5 gram Hog nosed bat to the 100 ton whale. Mammals include lion, horse, deer, monkeys, rat, whale, and dolphin.

Breast: The name mammal refers to a mammary gland in the breasts. A mammary gland gives milk to the infants, and that milk changes its nutritional composition as the infants grow. Some evolutionists claimed that these milk glands might be modified sweat glands. But reptiles do not have sweat glands. Moreover, sweat glands produce waste, not food. Also, unlike baby reptiles, mammal infants have both the instincts and the muscles to suck the milk from their motherís breast.

Diaphragm: Mammals have a diaphragm that separates the thorax from the abdomen. Reptiles do not.

Placenta: Mammal mothers have highly complex placentas for the nourishment and development of their unborn babies. Reptiles do not.

Jaws: Reptiles have at least four bones in the lower jaws. Mammals have only one.

Teeth: Mammals have developed elaborate teeth. Instead of the simple peg like teeth of the reptiles, there are a great variety of mammalian teeth adapted to cutting, nipping, piercing, grasping, pounding, or grinding food.

Ears: The organ of Corti in the ears of mammals does not exist in reptiles. This tiny complex organ has 20,000 rods and 30,000 nerve endings. Also mammals have three bones in their ears, while reptiles have only one. Where did the extra two bones in mammal ears come from? Guess what, some evolutionist claim that the two extra bones in the ear came from the three bones that were lost in the mammalís lower jaws! So, they claim that two bones of the reptileís lower jaw moved to the mammalís middle ear. As usual, there is no fossil evidence whatsoever to support this claim. It is just a wishful thinking.

Legs: Reptilian legs are located toward the side of the body so that the abdomen is on or very near to the ground. But in mammals the legs are under the body and raise it off the ground. Some evolutionists think that this is a minor difference that required minor changes in the skeleton.

What is the Origin of Insects?

Where are the insects in this evolution theory? Where did they come from? What did they evolve from? If the evolutionary origin of higher animals is confusing, the origin of close to 1,000,000 species of insects is completely blank. This figure may represent only a fraction on the species of insects that exist. They are extremely diverse and occur in all habitats capable of supporting life, but there is no fossil clue to their development from some kind of evolutionary ancestor. Insects have been found fossilized in a considerable numbers.

The most exceptional feature about such fossil insects is that they are very similar to those living now. In many cases, however, they are much larger than their modern relatives. There are giant dragonflies, giant cockroaches, giant ants, and so on. But their form is no different than that of modern insects. Some of the specific types have persisted throughout 70 million years.

What is the Origin of Plants?

More than 250,000 species of flowering plants are known. The plant kingdom is composed of five branches, three of which are algae. Most of the algae have no true tissues or organs. Both Algae and plants use the process of photosynthesis, by which light energy is absorbed and then converted into the chemical energy of glucose. This is another demonstration of the divine Law of Repetition. The study of paleobotany (origin of plants) has been even more disappointing to evolutionists than that of ancient animal life. One of the outstanding paleobotanists was Professor C. A. Arnold of the University of Michigan. He said: "It has been long hoped that extinct plants will ultimately reveal some of the stages through which existing groups have passed during the course of their development, but it must be freely admitted that this aspiration has been fulfilled to a very slight extent, even though paleobotanical research has been in progress for more than one hundred years. As yet we have not been able to trace the phylogenetic history of a single group of modern plants from its beginning to the present."

It is obvious that the comparative anatomy discredits evolution.

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