Copyright © By Dr. Adel Elsaie, Book Title: "History of Truth, The Truth about God and Religions"
3.5 Discrediting Evolution: Humans or Apes?
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The Apes Family
The Human-Like Family
Nearly 140 years after Darwinís Origin of species, evolutionists are still promoting his message in the educational systems and in the media. However, the longer scientists study the fossil record, the more convinced they become that evolution did not make a simple transition from ape to human, or that apes and humans both emerged from a common primate. There were many false starts and dead ends. Evolutionists know that a single bone that doesnít fit in the picture can upset everything. Also, polls consistently show that half of all the Americans reject this atheistic hypothesis. They prefer to believe, against all the marketing tactics of the evolution, the religious account of the creation model. Evolution should be taught as a controversial hypothesis accepted by some scientists, and not as a fact supported by all scientists.
Recall the saying of "A picture is better than a thousand words." Books, magazines, and TV documentaries provide pictures with artists' renderings of ape evolving to human. These artistic pictures supply the transitional links that do not exist in reality. Are apes our ancestors? Evolution hypothesis claims they are. That is why we see articles in magazines with titles such as: "How man began? Or how ape evolved to man? Or the missing link between ape and man." Speculation and very creative artistic pictures answer these big questions.
What we are left with is the imagination of nineteenth century scientists and the marketing of evolution by the twentieth century neo-evolutionists. And we all know what the new techniques in marketing can do to an inferior product. It will still be sold. What is striking in the media is the existence of strong desire coupled with great excitement to announce the discovery of a reconstruction of an ape-man that is older than the oldest one on record. To achieve this, few bones and big imaginations are used. The fossils' discoverer, then, starts collecting on his fame and newfound wealth by overestimating the importance of oneís own work. We watch the message of evolution in an interesting and fascinating show on television, while religious talk shows present subjects that most people knew and heard many times. Sometimes it looks like everyone is gaining from evolution: neo-evolutionists are gaining wealth and fame, and some laymen might not want to accept the notion that God exists.
If the natural selection of Darwin is correct, why, then, only some life forms always move higher on the evolutionary ladder? Evolutionary theory assumes that humans are more advanced than apes, apes are more advanced than the rest of mammals, mammals are more advanced than reptiles, reptiles are more advanced than amphibians, and amphibians are more advanced than fish. According to natural selection, given time and we had 4 billion years, we should have only one species and that is human. We should not have the inferior fish, amphibians, reptiles, or mammals. Only the fittest humans should survive. Then we told that 1.5 million species still exist on Earth.
Why didnít all the inferior apes evolve to the superior humans?
Why didnít all the inferior reptiles evolve to the superior mammals?
Why didnít all the inferior amphibians evolve to the superior reptiles?
Why didnít all the inferior fish evolve to the superior amphibians?
Why didnít all the inferior species evolve to one single superior species?
Evolution is an incredible amount of argument over remarkably very little!
The Apes Family
1- Rat-Like Primate:
Mammals existed on Earth for more than 100 million years before they began to dominate the Earth some 70 million years ago. One of the earliest fossils of a mammal claimed to be in the order of primates that gave birth to the lineage of present day apes is a small, rodent like. They were insect-eating quadrupeds about the size and shape of squirrels. This mammal is called prosimian or premonkey. It had thirty-four teeth as compared to most present day monkeys with thirty-two teeth. But is there enough evidence in the fossil record to support that this tiny animal was the ancestor of monkeys? No.
After a gap of about 40 million years, the Fayum Depression in Egypt yielded remains of the earliest known members of the ape family. It was named Aegyptopithecus - Egypt ape, the suffix "pithecus" means ape. This creature is said to have lived about 30 million years ago. The fossil record does not show how the prosimians evolved into monkeys and apes. Since the discovery of Aegyptopithecus in 1967 to 1980, these apes were called the missing links and the common ancestors of the ape and human families.
After another 20 million to 25 million years gap in the fossil record, another fossil creature has been presented as manís earliest known ancestors. It was given the official name Ramapithecus - Rama's ape (Rama was a mystical prince of India). Fossils of it were found in India about half a century ago, and in Kenya. Not many Ramapithecus specimens have been found so far, a total of some fifteen jaw fragments and more than forty teeth, representing perhaps twelve to twenty creatures. But that was enough to serve as the basis for a number of interesting speculations. These few specimens were found in India, China, Africa, Germany, and Spain. The hypothesis about Ramapithecus came from the study of his teeth and his small canines. A long list of speculations was developed about his size, eating habit, body structure and the tools that he used from 40 teeth. This list includes the usual speculative terms such as "maybe", "perhaps", "there are reasons to suggest"...etc. Using some teeth, and fragmented jaws, an ape was produced through artistic imaginations. This step was followed by the marketing propaganda as another overwhelming missing link in the human ladder of evolution! Natural history magazine, August / September 1979, stated: "How did Ramapithecus, reconstructed only from teeth and jaws - without pelvis, limb bones, or skull - sneaked into this manward marching procession?" Obviously a great deal of wishful thinking must have gone into such an effort to package the few bones to headline stories.
Oreopithecus, another so-called ancestor, is in fact an animal that existed 12 million years ago after a gap of about 10 million years in the fossil record. It lived in the forest and its arms were very long - much longer than its lower limbs - as in the case of apes that swing from one tree to another. It is very small in size in comparison with today's man (1.10 to 1.20 Mt.), and its brain capacity is quite small (400 cc.). As in the case of Ramapithecus, the fossils were not accompanied by any traces of human activities. Some scientists even consider Oreopithecus as an independent family
After about 8 million years gap in the fossil record, Australopithecus - southern ape - was discovered in South Africa in 1924. This creature lived about 3.9 million years ago in the Savannah and not in the forest. It was about four feet tall. Fossils also were found near the great African Lakes. Remains were also found in Java in sediments that are possibly one to four million years old. Australopithecus had a small ape-like skull, heavy jawbone and was pictured as a hairy ape walking on two legs. The teeth are small at the front, and very large at the back. Its brain capacity remains small (about 500 to 550 cc.)
The reason for his peculiar teeth, the same as in the case of Ramapithecus, was probably because of their habitat, and resulting diet. Baboons, living today in Ethiopia, have teeth and jaws very similar to Ramapithecus and Australopithecus. The human like teeth and jaws of these baboons are apparently related to their habitat and diet and are clearly not indicative of any approach to humans.
A cousin of Australopithecus was discovered in 1967 in the Omo Valley in Ethiopia. The fossilized remains of a woman in her twenties were discovered in 1974 in the Afar, in sediments that date about 3.5 million years ago. 60 percent of the bones and much of the skull were missing. Its brain size was a third of the size of a human brain, and its skull was very like a chimpanzee's. Scientists could tell that this creature stood 3 ft. 6 in. tall and walked fully upright. This is because the knee joint was built in such a way that the animal could fully straighten its legs. While the discoverer was examining the first fossils in his tent, the Beetlesí song Lucy in the sky with diamond was playing on his tape recorder. So he gave it the name Lucy. The marketing forces of evolution promoted that name instead of these Latin names that the laymen cannot pronounce. Now, probably every one on Earth has heard of "Lucy".
Needless to say that evolution publications and newspapers acclaimed the discovery of Australopithecus and Lucy. "The mystery is finally solved!" "It was Australopithecus that eventually evolved to Homo sapiens, or modern men." "By all the evidence men at last had met their long unknown, early ancestors." "The evidence was breathtaking, the long-sought missing link had finally been found."
More researches are now rejecting the idea that Australopithecus and Lucy resemble the human beings. Anatomist Solly Zuckerman wrote in his book ĎBeyond The Ivory Towerí, 1970: "When compared with human and simian (ape) skulls, the Australopithecine skull is in appearance overwhelmingly simian - not human. The contrary proposition would be equated to an assertion that black is white" He also stated: "Our findings leave no doubt that Australopithecus resembles not Homo sapiens but the living monkeys and apes. If any Australopithecus were found alive today, they would be put in zoos with other apes."
6- Homo Erectus
A number of fossils are now grouped under the generic name Homo Erectus (upright man), including the somewhat notorious Java man, Peking man, Heidelberg man, and Meganthropus. They are believed to have lived about 500,000 years ago, to have walked upright, to have had brains of about 1000 cc., and to have developed a crude culture involving simple implements and weapons.
The evidence of all this is ambiguous, to say the least. Java Man was later discarded by his discoverer, and the bones of Peking man disappeared during World War II and are unavailable for examination. Heidelberg Man consisted solely of a large jaw and Meganthropus consisted of two lower jawbones and four teeth and has been assigned by many to the Australopithecus.
However, other fossils of this general kind have apparently been found at various places around the world. It may well be that Homo Erectus was a true man, but somewhat degenerate in size and culture, possibly due to inbreeding, poor diet and a hostile environment.
In 1984, a 12-year-old boy of the Homo Erectus species, dated at 1.6 million years old was excavated in Kenya. His body skeleton was virtually indistinguishable from our own, and his skull and mandible looked much like Neanderthal man, except the brain capacity was only about 800 cc. This skeleton is believed to be the most complete skeleton of an early human "ancestor" ever found.
Some may question the true humanness of Homo Erectus on the basis of his small brain size (900 - 1100 cc.). However, that is definitely within the range of human brain size, although on the low end of the scale. Furthermore, there is no necessary correlation of brain sizes and intelligence.
The Human-Like Family
Modern type humans, with the capacity to reason, plan, invent, build upon previous knowledge and use complex languages, appear suddenly in the fossil record some fifty thousands years ago.
1- Neanderthal Man
The most famous of all so-called "missing link" is discovered in 1856 in the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf in Germany. Not until 1908, however, was the first more or less complete skeleton uncovered in France. Later identical types turned up in Spain, Italy, Greece, Morocco, Palestine, Iraq, and Java.
Although Neanderthal man was a medium size, perfectly biped, and endowed with well-developed muscles, his face shape was different from that of man today: His forehead was low, and the absence of a chin gave his face a muzzle-like appearance. Compared to the ape family, Neanderthal manís skull is more developed: its capacity increased to 1,300 -1,600 cc. The development of his intellectual level is manifested by the quality of weapons and implements discovered near the remains of Neanderthal man. He most probably found shelters in caves, in which he made fire and arranged his surroundings to suit his convenience. Near his remains, burial sites were discovered for objects thought to be required in the afterlife (large pieces of animals, antlers and horns, stone implements), which may suggest some spirituality.
One wonders whether Neanderthal man gave birth to Homo sapiens, or whether both coexisted together. Fossils such as the Qafzeh Man discovered in Palestine, possess a skull that is almost the same as that of Homo sapiens. The coexistence of the two types may well have led to interbreeding. While this is simply a hypothesis, there is reason to think that man as we know him today displayed the same principal anatomical characteristics he has displayed some 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, thus constituting the species that we call Homo Sapiens.
2- Cro-Magnon Man
The best preserved and most accurately dated skeleton was found in France, which was discovered in 1868 in the Dordogne region. The height of Cro-Magnon Man is 1.80 Mt., and he still possesses certain archaic features: The occipital region of the skull is not yet entirely developed, the face is very wide but the orbits are situated at a lower position, and the nose is protuberant. These few remaining features were quickly to disappear, and then there were no noticeable changes in human morphology. Fossils of Cro-Magnon Man were discovered in many parts in Africa, Asia, and Europe.
Since I do not believe the human interpretation of the evolution of species, because it just does not make a convincing argument, I am obliged to believe the creation story of The Creator Himself. The authentic words of God states:
Surah 2, Ayah 30."Behold, thy Lord said to the angles; "I will create a vicegerent on Earth." They said: "Wilt thou place therein one who will make mischief and shed blood? - Whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?" He said: "I know what ye know not"
The fascinating part of the above story is the answer of the angles to the Words of God. The angles, though pure and holy, and endued with power from God, yet they do not know the future. Also their question was in no way a form of objection to the Will of God or a question to God's Wisdom. They do not know that the creature, that God will create, will make mischief and shed blood. So how did the angles get this idea about the behavior of that creature? The only explanation is that: "from what they already know about the Earth and its existing creatures at that time." They definitely knew about living creatures on Earth that were killing one another.
Now, who were those creatures at the time of Adam?
∑ Were these creatures fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, or mammals?
∑ Were these creatures Australopithecus, Home Erectus, Neanderthal or Cro-Magnon Man?
I do not claim to have an answer to the above question, and God knows best. But I understand from the above verse that there were life forms at the time of Adam, and that Adam was not the first living creature on Earth, and God knows best.