Copyright © By Dr. Adel Elsaie, Book Title: "History of Truth, The Truth about God and Religions"
3.4 Discrediting Evolution: The Fossil Record
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Just as the biological hypothesis on the early atmosphere and the origin of life are hailed as factual evidence of the evolution, the fossil record is acclaimed as the most direct evidence for evolution! Fossils are the remains of past forms of life uncovered from the crust of the Earth. These may be complete remains (mammoths and insects), skeletons or hard parts of them such as teeth, bones, or shells. When most organisms die, they decompose quickly, so no record of their life is left. A hard part may be preserved if it is surrounded by clay or sand soon after death. The surrounding deposits prevent decomposition. Then, when these sediments turn to rock over long periods of time, the part of the organism is preserved.
Fossils formed in the sedimentary rock are the most common fossils. Layers settling on the top of each other form sedimentary rocks. When layers are not disturbed, the lower layers are the oldest, and the upper layers are the newest. The fossil record is important, since no one has witnessed the evolution of a major group of species. But the existing record provides dim and imperfect view of the ancient life. The complete record of the past is always beyond our reach since so many organisms left no trace. Yet incomplete as the record is, biologists rely on new discoveries, and the continued study of the existing fossils.
Darwin devoted one complete chapter in his book on the imperfection of the geological record, chapter 10. He conceded, "The distinctness of specific (living) forms and their not being blended together by innumerable transitional links, is a very obvious difficulty." The existing life forms do not offer any support to the theory of evolution. That is why the fossil record became so important. It was felt that at least fossils would provide the evidence that the theory of evolution needed.
If the fossil records were complete, and the evolutionists were honest serious scientists, every one on Earth would accept the evolution as a fact. This record would show, for example, how a giraffe evolved. The long neck of the giraffe is often used to illustrate the evolution hypothesis. The long neck evolved from short-necked ancestors. The short-necked giraffe could graze on grass, but as the grass became scarce, so the only remaining food source was the leaves of trees. Then each short-necked giraffe would stretch its neck to reach the leaves on the trees. As these giraffes reproduced, the result of the neck stretching would be passed to their offspring. This hypothesis can be criticized on several points. Where are, in the fossil record, giraffes with short necks? There is no answer. Why did this happen only to giraffes? There is no answer. Why donít we have donkeys, for example, with long necks? There is no answer. Why did not all the grass-eating animals develop long necks? There is no answer.
If evolution were a fact, the fossil record would reveal a gradual changing from one kind of life form to another. There should be at least one fossil that shows these changes. For example, there should be fish fins growing into amphibian legs with feet and toes, and gills growing into lungs. There should be reptiles with front limbs growing into bird wings, back limbs growing into legs with claws, scales growing into feathers, and mouths growing into beaks. But the fossil record does not include any of that. As Darwin himself asserted "The number of intermediate varieties, which have formerly existed, (must) be truly enormous." He is right, but there are no developing organs in the fossil record, except in the imagination of the evolutionists.
In the evolutionary theory, it was suggested that one species evolved to two or three other species. If we know that we have 1,500,000 species on Earth, then we should expect at least 1,500,000 transitional forms. They should be abundant on Earth. They should be everywhere. However, any of the fossils that were manipulated to present a single transitional form cannot lend any credibility. As a matter of fact, the above statement of Darwin, regarding the number of the intermediate forms, should be considered as a final discredit of the whole fiction of evolution.
Evolutionary theorists have argued that the gradual change from one life form to another took a lengthy period of time for which the fossil record was missing! So evolutionists blame the incompleteness of the fossil record for not uncovering links between species. Even Darwin wondered about that. This frustrating situation led him to say: "Why then is not every geological formation and every stratum full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely graduated organic chain; and this, perhaps is the most obvious and serious objection which can be argued against the theory." The fossil record in Darwinís time proved to be discouraging to him in another way. He explained: "The abrupt manner in which whole groups of species suddenly appear in certain formation has been argued by several paleontologists as a fatal objection to the belief in the transmutation of species." He added: "There is another and allied difficulty, which is much more serious. I allude to the manner in which species belonging to several of the main division of the animal kingdom suddenly appear in the lowest known fossiliferous rocks. The case at present must remain inexplicable, and may be truly argued as a valid argument against the (evolutionary) views here entertained." Darwin attempted to explain these stubborn problems by attacking the fossil record. He said: "I look at the geological record as a history of the world imperfectly kept, imperfect to an extreme degree."
Now, after extensive excavating of over a hundred million fossils, all catalogued and identified, and the record is still so imperfect in the eyes of the evolutionists. The existing record shows only one fact and one course: basic kinds of living forms appeared in a very short time and did not transform appreciably for long period of time. No developmental links between one major kind and another have ever been established. So what the fossil record actually reveals is the opposite of what the evolution hypothesis predicted.
Evolutionists maintain that life evolved in a very long time by chance through chemical reactions between non-living atoms. The Earth is now known to be formed about 4.6 billion years ago. Life is thought to form sometimes between 4.4 billion and 3.8 billion years ago. But heavy bombardment of the Earth by meteors occurred 4.5 billion to 3.8 billion years ago, and possibly destroyed all existed life. Volcanic eruptions expelled gases and contributed to a thick atmosphere of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and carbon monoxide with traces of ammonia, methane, and hydrogen sulfide. Possible evidence of life was found in the rocks of Greenland about 3.8 billion years ago. The earliest known fossils of the blue-green algae that lived 3.5 billion years ago were found in Australia. The first one-celled organisms with a nucleus lived on Earth 2.1 billion years ago. The first multicelled algae existed 1.8 billion years ago. Thus for 4 billion years and until about 550 million years ago, life on Earth consisted only of algae, bacteria, and plankton. Then at the start of what is called the Cambrian period (between 543 to 510 million years ago), in a burst of sudden creativity lasting no more than 10 million years, an astonishing array of multicelled animals show up in the fossil record. These creatures represent life forms than can swim, fly, and crawl. This time is often called an "explosion or the Big Bang" of life forms. During these 10 million years, all the major group of invertebrates made their first appearance in the most spectacular rise in diversity ever recorded on our planet. Snails, sponges, starfish, and many other complex sea creatures appeared. Some also had efficient and complex eyes more than any human.
After the Cambrian Big Bang of life, the testimony of the fossil record is exactly the same for all kinds of life: All life forms appeared suddenly with no transitional forms. Insects and plants present serious problems to evolutionists. If all life forms evolved from hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and other atoms, then what are the evolutionary ancestors of insects and trees? Cockroaches appeared in the fossil record 280 million years ago. Flies appeared in the fossil record 40 million years ago. Ants appeared in the fossil record 25 million years ago. Cockroaches, flies, and ants in the fossil record are very similar to their present day counterparts. Cockroaches are still Cockroaches. Flies are still flies. Ants are still ants. Cockroaches did not evolve to flies, and flies did not evolve to ants!
As for the trees, they followed the same trend of every other life form. The fossil record contains leaves from oak, palm, and pine trees that existed for 180 million years. These ancient leaves are also very similar to their present day counterparts. The animal kingdom follows the same pattern. There are variations, but all are easily identified as the same "kind."
Another fact, which should discredit the evolutionary theory, is that there exists no evidence in the fossil record of partially formed bones or organs that could be considered the start up of a new function. Evolutionís textbooks are silent about the origin of flying creatures such as bats and birds. Evolutionists speculate about the evolution of one kind of finch to another, because they have common features, but they are silent about the origin of any finch. But none of these transitional forms have been found. There is not even a clue of a credible link.
Are there any fossils of giraffes or camels with necks of one quarter, one half, and three quarters their present necks? No.
Are there any fossils of birds evolving a beak from a reptile jaw? No.
Is there any fossil evidence of fish developing an amphibian pelvis? No.
Is there any fossil evidence of fish fins turning into amphibian legs, feet and toes? No.
The average layman can produce many other questions like the above ones, and some can be even funny. An unbiased zoologist may expand on the above questions, and write a complete book to further discredit the speculation of evolution. The fossil record is our only authentic evidence that reveals the type of life forms that lived on Earth for hundreds of million years. It clearly indicates that different life forms appeared suddenly and remained distinctly different without any trace of transitional forms. When the evolutionists claim that the fossil record support the speculation of evolution, they are committing a serious mistake. They present incomplete and distorted pictures to the students and the public at large. It does not support the speculation of evolution. It is definitely a strong evidence of sudden creation of separate life forms. The fossil record reveals that the Omnipotent God created insects, trees, animals, humans, and all other life forms in their separate forms.
It is obvious that the fossil record discredits evolution.